JOURNAL OF NURSING AND PALLIATIVE CARE SERVICES (NPCS)

Depression in Adolescent Students, Tabriz, Iran, 2007



MahinYazdani*1 , Hassan Asady2 , MohammadaliGreyshizade2 , Abdolrasool Safaian2


1Infectious disease specialist in Calvert Memorial Hospital, Huntingtown, Maryland, USA
2Medical sciences of Tabriz University, Iran

*Corresponding Author:Mahin Yazdani, Infectious disease specialist in Calvert Memorial Hospital, Huntingtown, Maryland, USA, ;TEL::+1 (410) 535-1695 ; FAX::+1 (410) 535-1695;E-mail:mahin1329@hotmail.com


Citation:MahinYazdani(2016) Depression in Adolescent Students, Tabriz, Iran, 2007.J Nursing Palliatserv1:104.


Copyright: © 2016 MahinYazdani, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited


Received date:October 25, 2016; Accepted date:November 29, 2016; Published date:December 06, 2016


Introduction

Adolescents can have mental, emotional and behavioral problems, that are real painful, and costly. Mental disorders are sources of stress for adolescents and their families, schools and communities. Studies show that 9 of every 100 adolescents may have major depression. It can cause by biology environment or combination of two. For example, biological factors generics, chemical imbalances in body, environmental factors including exposure to violence, extreme stress and loss of an important person. So, it seems necessary to investigate in this area subjects.


Method & Materials

This descriptive study was concerned to examine depression in adolescent students and effects of related factors in schools of Tabriz, Iran. Data was gathered by the center of epidemiological studies depression scale for children from 903 adolescent students, including 455 boys and 448 girls who were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. Data were analyzed by spss/pc.


Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC)


DURING THE PAST WEEK Not At All A Little Some A Lot


1. I was bothered by things that usually don’t bother me. _____ _____ _____ _____


2. I did not feel like eating, I wasn’t very hungry. _____ _____ _____ _____


3. I wasn’t able to feel happy, even when my family or _____ _____ _____ _____
friends tried to help me feel better.


4. I felt like I was just as good as other kids. _____ _____ _____ _____


5. I felt like I couldn’t pay attention to what I was doing. _____ _____ _____ _____


DURING THE PAST WEEK Not At All A Little Some A Lot


6. I felt down and unhappy. _____ _____ _____ _____


7. I felt like I was too tired to do things. _____ _____ _____ _____


8. I felt like something good was going to happen. _____ _____ _____ _____


9. I felt like things I did before didn’t work out right. _____ _____ _____ _____


10. I felt scared. _____ _____ _____ _____


DURING THE PAST WEEK Not At All A Little Some A Lot


11. I didn’t sleep as well as I usually sleep. _____ _____ _____ _____


12. I was happy. _____ _____ _____ _____


13. I was more quiet than usual. _____ _____ _____ _____


14. I felt lonely, like I didn’t have any friends. _____ _____ _____ _____


15. I felt like kids I know were not friendly or that they didn’t want to be with me. _____ _____ _____ _____


DURING THE PAST WEEKNot At All A Little Some A Lot


16. I had a good time. _____ _____ _____ _____


17. I felt like crying. _____ _____ _____ _____


18. I felt sad. _____ _____ _____ _____


19. I felt people didn’t like me. _____ _____ _____ _____


20. It was hard to get started doing things. _____ _____ _____ _____


Results

The results showed that depression is a common event among adolescents. It was more in girls. There was correlation between depression and some factors such as: increased age, school and family problems, life events and self- concept of adolescents (p<0.001) (Figure1-4) (Table 1-3)


Figure 1
Figure 1: Sex frequency.
Figure 2
Figure 2: level of depression.
Figure 3
Figure 3: level of depression & sex.
Figure 4
Figure 4: level of depression & age.

Table1:depression & school problems.


n. % Min. SD. Sta.ests
Willing to go to school
No 220 24/4 27/8 10/9 f.13/8, p<0.001
YES 683 75/6 23/4 10/9
Doing home work
NO 387 42/9 28/4 10/6 f.48/3, p<0.001
Yes 516 57/1 21/4 10/4
School failure
No 673 74/5 24/1 10/4 f.1/96, p=0.158
Yes 230 25/5 25/3 11/2
Reexamination
No 419 46/4 22/7 11/1 f.9/9, p<0.001
Yes 484 53/6 25/9 10/6
Absent or Discontinue
A 375 41/5 25/5 11/4 f.2/2, p=0.058
D 24 2/7 25/4 7/9
No A&D 504 55/8 23/6 10/7

Table 2: Demographic characteristics.


Category Options Frequency Depression Sta.test
N % min SD
Satisfaction of self At all 82 9.1 33.1707 11.8393 F=49.459
P < 0.001
Little 141 15.6 30.8936 10.8382
Moderate 428 47.4 23.7173 9.4131
Much 228 24.8 18.6339 9.5481
Events in pass 6 months Pleasure 276 30.6 20.2101 9.9668 F=24.776
P < 0.001
Sad 229 25.4 29.502 11.0579
Both or ? 25 2.7 28.1667 11.5658
Not 373 14.3 24.3941 10.5381
Relaxation methods Exercise 76 8.4 21.3289 9.7630 F=2.035
P < 0.059
Walking 128 14.2 24.5313 11.1263
Study 44 4.9 24.1364 11.4152
Pray 353 39.1 24.2805 11.4166
Friends 161 17.8 26.3789 10.5983
Extra 141 15.6 24.9312 10.8732

Table 3:Family problems.


Category Options Frequency Depression Sta.test
Economic status N % min SD F=2.011
P < 0.113
Low 90 10 25.9333 11.7844
Moderate 732 81 24.5369 10.9533
High 63 7 21.5714 10.9878
? 18 2 24.9444 10.8328
Parents Both 833 92.2 24.0014 11.3576 F=16.637
P < 0.001
One 70 8.8 30.1061 10.5613
Family problems Yes 182 20.2 30.8242 10.5951 F=24.214
P < 0.001
No 721 79.8 22.8947 10.6035
Good 589 65.2 22.5173 10.4695
Family relationship Moderate 259 28.7 27.1660 10.8677 F=24.214
P < 0.001
Bad 26 2.9 35.2692 10.7613
? 29 3.2 30.5862 12.2606
Satisfaction of parents Father 49 5.4 30.2245 10.4488 F=18.486
P < 0.001
Mother 141 15.6 26.8865 11.3598
Both 631 70 22.6149 10.2923
No 59 6.5 31.5593 12.1375
? 23 2.5 30.3913 12.2353
Chronic disease in family Yes 161 17.8 29.0186 11.0224 F=17.829
P < 0.001
NO 724 82.2 23.4272 10.7504
Depression H.in family Yes 126 14 31.0317 11.8341 F=32.492
P < 0.001
No 761 84.2 23.2392 10.4793
? 16 1.8 31.7500 11.1923

Discussion & Conclusion

Depression is the most common mental disorders and a serious health problem in the world. It causes social, educational and biological problems in adolescents. Physiological changes during adolescence cause mental distress and make them more prone to depression. So, early diagnosis and treatment is very important.


It is important to pay attention: Caring for every adolescent mental health; Increase public awareness about the importance of protecting and nurturing the mental health of adolescent; Foster recognition that many adolescent have mental health problems that are real, painful and sometimes severs; Make time to listen, make time to talk.